At the heart of the nutrition pyramid are the most useful foods on which the diet should be based. Above the main level there are three more floors, which gradually narrow as the use of products in the human diet decreases.
The foundation of the pyramid, and as a result, the basis for our health are vegetables and fruits. After all, it is in vegetables and fruits that the greatest amount of vitamins and trace elements is contained. These products are low in calories and contain the optimal amount of energy.
Grains and cereals with a rich fiber content have settled on the second floor of the pyramid. It is also necessary to include potatoes, pasta made from durum wheat and unpeeled rice. Fiber and starch, which are abundant in these products, contribute to healthy digestion.
On the third floor there are products with a high protein content. This category can be divided into two parts. The first is dairy and fermented milk products. The second is animal proteins (meat and eggs), vegetable proteins (legumes) and seafood.
The top of the pyramid was headed by so-called flavorings and seasonings: garlic, aromatic herbs, pepper, avocado, olives, nuts.
In the previous pyramid, there was also a fifth floor, which included animal fats, butter and sweets. However, in the new version, these products are completely excluded. The developers of the pyramid came to a consensus – these products have nothing to do with rational nutrition and a healthy lifestyle.
The basic principle of the pyramid is the rule – it is necessary to eat food from all four floors every day. However, products from the lower floor (vegetables and fruits) should make up half of the daily diet, the totality of products from other sectors of the pyramid will make up the second half (25% – cereals, 20% – milk, meat, fish, 5% – additives).
The following measures are taken to calculate portions: milk, yogurt -1 cup, medium fruit – 1 piece, bread – 1 slice, cereals, rice, pasta – 90-100 grams, eggs – 2 pieces.
It is recommended to eat from 7 to 11 servings of vegetables and fruits daily. It is desirable that each portion has a different color. Ideally, a healthy daily diet should contain foods of all colors of the rainbow. It is better to start the day with yellow and orange fruits (orange or carrot juice), during lunch it will be useful to eat something green (cabbage, cucumbers), but in the evening, pink or red products (tomatoes, berries) will be just right.
The products of the second floor should make up about a third of your diet (6-7 servings daily). Cereals should be chosen in dark colors, they contain fewer carbohydrates, unlike light cereals, and pasta made from durum wheat. Potatoes should not be abused. Give preference to rye flour bread.
Of the products of the protein group, nutritionists advise paying attention to fish. Lean beef and veal, as well as white chicken and turkey meat should be consumed from meat products. But sausage, sausages and semi-finished products should be excluded from the diet. From dairy products – kefir, yogurt and low-fat cottage cheese. The daily diet should include 1-2 servings (100-150g) of such products.
It is believed that we fully receive products from the top of the pyramid when consuming products from the lower floors. Therefore, their consumption must be minimized.